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This thesis proposes that the spectral power distribution (SPD) of lighting can be modified to enhance spatial brightness. Energy saving is then possible by using SPD that allows illuminance to be reduced whilst maintaining the same level of spatial brightness. The Akashi and Boyce study demonstrates an energy saving of 33% by using lamps of higher correlated colour temperature but it is widely known that this is not a good metric for predicting spatial brightness. The aim of this study was to identify a metric for predicting spatial brightness. The first approach followed the method of Cowan and Ware: use the results of past experiments to test potential metrics. 65 studies of spatial brightness and SPD were found. Initially, these lead to different conclusions as to whether SPD affects spatial brightness. The reasons for this are that they used different methodologies and hence review of method was used to screen the credible data from within these 65 studies: only 19 of them were considered to be credible. This thesis focussed on the category rating procedure. The review of methods included an experiment comparing rating scales with different response ranges and a meta-analysis comparing results gained when either brightness or visual clarity were the objective of the experiment. Two potential metrics for spatial brightness are the scotopic to photopic (S/P) luminance ratio and the area of the colour gamut (GA). Results from the credible studies were used to test these models: while both models suggest a reasonable prediction, it was found that they were not independent for this set of data and it was therefore not possible to discriminate between them. Hence an experiment was carried out to directly test these metrics. The experiment employed full field sequential evaluation of stimulus pairs, with matching and discrimination procedures. Three SPDs were compared, these chosen to isolate the S/P and GA effects. Following Berman et al, one pair had identical chromaticity but different S/P ratios: a second pair had identical S/P ratio but different gamut area; the third pair had different S/P and gamut area. The two procedures led to similar results: null condition trials confirmed that doubt about interval bias in the Berman et al data was unwarranted. It was found that lighting of higher S/P or higher GA enhance spatial brightness: it was also found that their effects appear to be additive. When the final remodelling was done by adding the data points from the new experiment to the data set, the models of the difference of S/P ratio and the log ratio of GA had the best fits with spatial brightness. Their correlations were equally plausible with mean illuminance ratio of the data set. This thesis demonstrates that SPD affects spatial brightness, allowing lower illuminances to be used when using lighting of higher S/P ratio and gamut area.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: Interior lighting, spatial brightness, lamp spectrum, S/P ratio, gamut area, photopic light levels
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Social Sciences (Sheffield) > School of Architecture (Sheffield)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.647034
Depositing User: Miss Deniz ATLI
Date Deposited: 07 May 2015 15:18
Last Modified: 03 Oct 2016 13:06
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/8850

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