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Solid waste management and recycling during Hajj pilgrimage in Mina

Alsebaei, Abdullah Faisal (2014) Solid waste management and recycling during Hajj pilgrimage in Mina. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.

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Abstract

Hajj, one of the world’s biggest pilgrimages for Muslims, takes place in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Annually, about four million pilgrims gather in sacred places in Makkah to perform Hajj, spending most of the time (4-5 days) in a place called Mina where they generate about 17 kt of solid waste. This quantity is disposed of in Makkah landfill without any treatment or resource recovery. Therefore, this research aims to study and assess the current SWM in Mina and identify the main challenges, with a view to investigating the possibility of introducing recycling scheme. The current situation of SWM in Mina was assessed: (i) based on the Wasteaware ISWM benchmark indicators; (ii) through comparison with other mega events; and (iii) via the opinion of main stakeholders (questionnaires). Based on this assessment, a pilot recycling scheme was introduced through an exemplar project, implemented in three camps in Mina, where pilgrims were asked to sort their plastic waste into provided sorting bins. Subsequently, pilgrims’ recycling intention was compared with their actual behaviour to estimate the predictive accuracy of the stated intention. An econometric (logit) model was developed to identify factors affect pilgrims’ recycling intention and to predict future behaviour based on stated intention. It is concluded that the key weaknesses in SWM in Mina are the lack of controlled waste disposal, the lack of waste recovery or recycling, and the current national SWM strategy’s insufficiency regarding environmental protection. The exemplar project demonstrated that recycling is feasible. The average recycling rate was at 25% wt. with no practical difference between the group practicing recycling at home and other that do not. An adjusted stated intention was calculated to enable predicting future pilgrims’ recycling behaviour. The overall predictive accuracy of the pilgrims’ stated intention was at 79%, denoting a strong relationship between the pilgrims’ actual behaviour and stated intention. Based on the econometric model, it is concluded that mainly level of education (p = 0.0001), socio-demographic factors, ethnicity (p = 0.019), and recycling habit (p = 0.013) have an effect on pilgrims’ recycling intention, if recycling is imposed by law (compulsory).

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: Solid waste, Recycling, Mina, Hajj
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Engineering (Leeds) > School of Civil Engineering (Leeds)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.638934
Depositing User: Mr Abdullah Faisal Alsebaei
Date Deposited: 11 Mar 2015 10:13
Last Modified: 06 Oct 2016 14:42
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/8275

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