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A Spatial Agent-based Model for Volcanic Evacuation of Mt. Merapi

Jumadi, Jumadi (2018) A Spatial Agent-based Model for Volcanic Evacuation of Mt. Merapi. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.

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Natural disasters, especially volcanic eruptions, are hazardous events that frequently happen in Indonesia. As a country within the “Ring of Fire”, Indonesia has hundreds of volcanoes and Mount Merapi is the most active. Historical studies of this volcano have revealed that there is potential for a major eruption in the future. Therefore, long-term disaster management is needed. To support the disaster management, physical and socially-based research has been carried out, but there is still a gap in the development of evacuation models. This modelling is necessary to evaluate the possibility of unexpected problems in the evacuation process since the hazard occurrences and the population behaviour are uncertain. The aim of this research was to develop an agent-based model (ABM) of volcanic evacuation to improve the effectiveness of evacuation management in Merapi. Besides the potential use of the results locally in Merapi, the development process of this evacuation model contributes by advancing the knowledge of ABM development for large-scale evacuation simulation in other contexts. Its novelty lies in (1) integrating a hazard model derived from historical records of the spatial impact of eruptions, (2) formulating and validating an individual evacuation decision model in ABM based on various interrelated factors revealed from literature reviews and surveys that enable the modelling of reluctant people, (3) formulating the integration of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) in ABM to model a spatio-temporal dynamic model of risk (STDMR) that enables representation of the changing of risk as a consequence of changing hazard level, hazard extent and movement of people, and (4) formulating an evacuation staging method based on MCE using geographic and demographic criteria. The volcanic evacuation model represents the relationships between physical and human agents, consisting of the volcano, stakeholders, the population at risk and the environment. The experimentation of several evacuation scenarios in Merapi using the developed ABM of evacuation shows that simultaneous strategy is superior in reducing the risk, but the staged scenario is the most effective in minimising the potential of road traffic problems during evacuation events in Merapi. Staged evacuation can be a good option when there is enough time to evacuate. However, if the evacuation time is limited, the simultaneous strategy is better to be implemented. Appropriate traffic management should be prepared to avoid traffic problems when the second option is chosen.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Related URLs:
Keywords: agent-based model; evacuation model; evacuation decision; risk perception model; volcanic hazard; synthetic population; Merapi
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Environment (Leeds) > School of Geography (Leeds)
Depositing User: J Jumadi
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2019 11:08
Last Modified: 28 Mar 2019 12:40
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/23186

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