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Array Signal Processing Based on Traditional and Sparse Arrays

Jafri, Ahsan (2019) Array Signal Processing Based on Traditional and Sparse Arrays. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

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Array signal processing is based on using an array of sensors to receive the impinging signals. The received data is either spatially filtered to focus the signals from a desired direction or it may be used for estimating a parameter of source signal like direction of arrival (DOA), polarization and source power. Spatial filtering also known as beamforming and DOA estimation are integral parts of array signal processing and this thesis is aimed at solving some key probems related to these two areas. Wideband beamforming holds numerous applications in the bandwidth hungry data traffic of present day world. Several techniques exist to design fixed wideband beamformers based on traditional arrays like uniform linear array (ULA). Among these techniques, least squares based eigenfilter method is a key technique which has been used extensively in filter and wideband beamformer design. The first contribution of this thesis comes in the form of critically analyzing the standard eigenfilter method where a serious flaw in the design formulation is highlighted which generates inconsistent design performance, and an additional constraint is added to stabilize the achieved design. Simulation results show the validity and significance of the proposed method. Traditional arrays based on ULAs have limited applications in array signal processing due to the large number of sensors required and this problem has been addressed by the application of sparse arrays. Sparse arrays have been exploited from the perspective of their difference co-array structures which provide significantly higher number of degrees of freedoms (DOFs) compared to ULAs for the same number of sensors. These DOFs (consecutive and unique lags) are utilized in the application of DOA estimation with the help of difference co-array based DOA estimators. Several types of sparse arrays include minimum redundancy array (MRA), minimum hole array (MHA), nested array, prototype coprime array, conventional coprime array, coprime array with compressed interelement spacing (CACIS), coprime array with displaced subarrays (CADiS) and super nested array. As a second contribution of this thesis, a new sparse array termed thinned coprime array (TCA) is proposed which holds all the properties of a conventional coprime array but with $\ceil*{\frac{M}{2}}$ fewer sensors where $M$ is the number of sensors of a subarray in the conventional structure. TCA possesses improved level of sparsity and is robust against mutual coupling compared to other sparse arrays. In addition, TCA holds higher number of DOFs utilizable for DOA estimation using variety of methods. TCA also shows lower estimation error compared to super nested arrays and MRA with increasing array size. Although TCA holds numerous desirable features, the number of unique lags offered by TCA are close to the sparsest CADiS and nested array and significantly lower than MRA which limits the estimation error performance offered by TCA through (compressive sensing) CS-based methods. In this direction, the structure of TCA is studied to explore the possibility of an array which can provide significantly higher number of unique lags with improved sparsity for a given number of sensors. The result of this investigation is the third contribution of this thesis in the form of a new sparse array, displaced thinned coprime array with additional sensor (DiTCAAS), which is based on a displaced version of TCA. The displacement of the subarrays generates an increase in the unique lags but the minimum spacing between the sensors becomes an integer multiple of half wavelength. To avoid spatial aliasing, an additional sensor is added at half wavelength from one of the sensors of the displaced subarray. The proposed placement of the additional sensor generates significantly higher number of unique lags for DiTCAAS, even more than the DOFs provided by MRA. Due to its improved sparsity and higher number of unique lags, DiTCAAS generates the lowest estimation error and robustness against heavy mutual coupling compared to super nested arrays, MRA, TCA and sparse CADiS with CS-based DOA estimation.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Engineering (Sheffield) > Electronic and Electrical Engineering (Sheffield)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.767303
Depositing User: Mr Ahsan Jafri
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2019 08:55
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2019 20:06
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/23072

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