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Advanced Optical and 3D Reconstruction Diagnostics for Combustion and Fluids Research

Wang, Qian (2012) Advanced Optical and 3D Reconstruction Diagnostics for Combustion and Fluids Research. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

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Abstract

Imaging based optical diagnostics have played an important role in combustion and fluids studies. However, most imaging techniques are two dimensional. The increasing interest in accurate whole field measurement has heightened the need for developing three dimensional methods. Furthermore, many flows are inherently 3D in nature. One aim of this study is to develop an innovative 3D schlieren/shadowgraph system based on conventional schlieren/shadowgraph techniques. Furthermore, several research issues related to fluid mechanics and combustion are investigated using multi optical methods, including high speed direct/schlieren imaging, stereo imaging and 3D reconstruction and PIV techniques, etc. Firstly, a stereoscopic shadowgraph system has been developed using two sets of conventional z-type schlieren configurations. The test volume is set at the intersection of two inclined converging beams formed by two pairs of parabolic mirrors. Two synchronised high speed cameras are used to record the shadowgraph image pairs simultaneously. A precisely etched metal mesh plate is used to calibrate the stereoscopic shadowgraph system. The fully developed MATLAB code is employed to obtain calibration parameters and 3D coordinates reconstruction. A crystal block with internal 3D images is acted as a static model for point reconstruction. The 3D coordinates obtained are in good agreement with the real dimensions. The technique has been subsequently applied to investigate the bursting dynamics of a bubble. The 3D curve reconstruction is also accomplished successfully. The stereoscopic shadowgraph technique has been shown to be an effective method for both 3D visualisation and quantitative measurement. Secondly, the spark induced hot gas jet of a gas turbine combustor igniter has been investigated using optical methods with the combination of high speed schlieren and stereo imaging. A spherical shockwave and a hot gas jet are observed after spark initiation. The 3D velocity vectors of the flying off metal bits are calculated by a stereo imaging and reconstruction algorithm. It has been found that the amount and velocity distributions of the eroded metal bits are very different even at a fixed input voltage to the igniter, which contrasts with the quite consistent hot gas jet development. The 3D structures of the interaction boundaries between hot gas and ambient air are reconstructed for the first time using stereoscopic shadowgraph technique. Thirdly, the vortex dynamics and structures of methane-air diffusion flames are investigated under different co-flow conditions. The schlieren and PIV images show that the visible flame flickering is dominated by the dynamics of the external toroidal vortices outside. The co-flow air is observed to push the initiation point of toroidal vortices beyond the visible flame height and suppress flame flickering completely. The velocity vectors and vorticity contours at different air flow rates are presented and analysed. The shedding frequency of the toroidal vortex is found to be consistent with the result obtained from a photomultiplier. The investigation indicates that co-flow helps to depress flame instability by changing the vortex evolution. Finally, a laminar diffusion flame is studied under external acoustic excitation at different frequencies (6 Hz-100 Hz). The flame structures and vortex evolutions are investigated using high-speed stereo/schlieren imaging and digital imaging processing techniques. The flame frequency shows obvious nonlinear response to both the excitation frequency and amplitude. Several typical nonlinear phenomena were observed and analysed, which may serve as proof for relevant numerical simulation.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Engineering (Sheffield) > Mechanical Engineering (Sheffield)
Depositing User: Ms. Qian Wang
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2012 15:23
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2013 08:47
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/1995

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