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The permeation and moisture transmission properties of a thermosensitive membrane barrier for chemical protective clothing

Phromphen, Phannaphat (2015) The permeation and moisture transmission properties of a thermosensitive membrane barrier for chemical protective clothing. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.

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Abstract

The liquid chemical permeation properties and water vapour transmission properties of temperature sensitive poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) grafted N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) (NIPAAM-g-PVDF) copolymer membranes as a smart barrier layer in chemical protective clothing are studied in this research. Both modified thermally induced method and modified plasma induced method are employed to oxidise PVDF polymer for its copolymerisation with NIPAAM monomers. In the thermal induced method, NIPAAM-g-PVDF polymer materials are synthesised via the copolymerisation of ozone activated PVDF polymer with NIPAAM monomers below a lower critical solution temperature of NIPAAM (30°C). An effective supercritical carbon dioxide drying method is used as an alternative drying method to remove the solvent from the ozone activated PVDF polymer in conventionally copolymerisation is successfully applied and a new direct copolymerisation route by adding NIPAAM polymer into ozone activated PVDF in solutions without the drying process of the activated PVDF polymers. The NIPAAM-g-PVDF made by the new copolymerisation process is much simpler than the conventional method and the processing time needed is much shorter. In the oxygen plasma induced copolymerisation method, the porous PVDF membranes produced from the phase inversion method are treated oxygen plasma before they were copolymerised with NIPAAM monomer in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent aqueous solution below the lower critical solution temperature of NIPAAM (30°C). The structural characteristics of heat-pressed NIPAAM-g-PVDF nanoporous membranes produced from the above two methods are investigated. The influence of the microstructure of the nanoporous copolymer membranes on both their water vapour transfer properties and dynamic permeation rate has been studied. The mechanisms of liquid/vapour permeation through the thermal sensitive copolymer nanoporous membranes are analysed and investigated. In this study, it is found that the breakthrough time and permeation rate of nanoporous NIPAAM-g-PVDF membranes are influenced by the proportion of NIPAAM components, the membrane thickness, the crystallinity and the porous structure of the NIPAAM-g-PVDF membranes. It is also found that the water vapour permeability of the heat-pressed NIPAAM-g-PVDF membranes at both 20°C and 40°C are influenced by the membrane thickness, the total pore volume and the porosity of the membranes. The water vapour permeability coefficient of the NIPAAM-g-PVDF nanoporous membranes is determined by both the proportion of thermal sensitive NIPAAM components and associated porous structure of the copolymer membranes.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: Technical textile, temperature sensitivity polymer, water vapour transmission rate, permeation rate, chemical protective clothing
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Cultures (Leeds) > School of Design (Leeds)
The University of Leeds > Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Cultures (Leeds) > School of Design (Leeds) > Centre for Technical Textiles (Leeds)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.682247
Depositing User: Miss Phannaphat Phromphen
Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2016 11:35
Last Modified: 15 Oct 2018 13:21
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/12002

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