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Physically Based Forehead Modelling and Animation including Wrinkles

Warburton, Mark (2014) Physically Based Forehead Modelling and Animation including Wrinkles. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

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Abstract

There has been a vast amount of research on the production of realistic facial models and animations, which is one of the most challenging areas of computer graphics. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of physically based approaches for facial animation, whereby the effects of muscle contractions are propagated through facial soft-tissue models to automatically deform them in a more realistic and anatomically accurate manner. Presented in this thesis is a fully physically based approach for efficiently producing realistic-looking animations of facial movement, including animation of expressive wrinkles, focussing on the forehead. This is done by modelling more physics-based behaviour than current computer graphics approaches. The presented research has two major components. The first is a novel model creation process to automatically create animatable non-conforming hexahedral finite element (FE) simulation models of facial soft tissue from any surface mesh that contains hole-free volumes. The generated multi-layered voxel-based models are immediately ready for simulation, with skin layers and element material properties, muscle properties, and boundary conditions being automatically computed. The second major component is an advanced optimised GPU-based process to simulate and visualise these models over time using the total Lagrangian explicit dynamic (TLED) formulation of the FE method. An anatomical muscle contraction model computes active and transversely isotropic passive muscle stresses, while advanced boundary conditions enable the sliding effect between the superficial and deep soft-tissue layers to be simulated. Soft-tissue models and animations with varying complexity are presented, from a simple soft-tissue-block model with uniform layers of skin and muscle, to a complex forehead model. These demonstrate the flexibility of the animation approach to produce detailed animations of realistic gross- and fine-scale soft-tissue movement, including wrinkles, with different muscle structures and material parameters, for example, to animate different-aged skin. Owing to the detail and accuracy of the models and simulations, the animation approach could also be used for applications outside of computer graphics, such as surgical applications. Furthermore, the animation approach can be used to animate any multi-layered soft body (not just soft tissue).

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: physically based modelling, physically based animation, facial animation, soft-tissue animation, wrinkle animation, finite element method, GPU computing
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Engineering (Sheffield) > Computer Science (Sheffield)
The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Science (Sheffield) > Computer Science (Sheffield)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.634347
Depositing User: Mr Mark Warburton
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2015 14:49
Last Modified: 03 Oct 2016 12:09
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/7994

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