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Development of Online, Continuous Heavy Metals Detection and Monitoring Sensors Based on Microfluidic Plasma Reactors

Abdul-Majeed, Wameath Sh. (2012) Development of Online, Continuous Heavy Metals Detection and Monitoring Sensors Based on Microfluidic Plasma Reactors. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

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Abstract

This research is dedicated to develop a fully integrated system for heavy metals determination in water samples based on micro fluidic plasma atomizers. Several configurations of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) atomizer are designed, fabricated and tested toward this target. Finally, a combination of annular and rectangular DBD atomizers has been utilized to develop a scheme for heavy metals determination. The present thesis has combined both theoretical and experimental investigations to fulfil the requirements. Several mathematical studies are implemented to explore the optimal design parameters for best system performance. On the other hand, expanded experimental explorations are conducted to assess the proposed operational approaches. The experiments were designed according to a central composite rotatable design; hence, an empirical model has been produced for each studied case. Moreover, several statistical approaches are adopted to analyse the system performance and to deduce the optimal operational parameters. The introduction of the examined analyte to the plasma atomizer has been achieved by applying chemical schemes, where the element in the sample has been derivitized by using different kinds of reducing agents to produce vapour species (e.g. hydrides) for a group of nine elements examined in this research individually and simultaneously. Moreover, other derivatization schemes based on photochemical vapour generation assisted by ultrasound irradiation are also investigated. Generally speaking, the detection limits achieved in this research for the examined set of elements (by applying hydroborate scheme) are found to be acceptable in accordance with the standard limits in drinking water. The results of copper compared with the data from other technologies in the literature, showed a competitive detection limit obtained from applying the developed scheme, with an advantage of conducting simultaneous, fully automated, insitu, online- real time analysis as well as a possibility of connecting the proposed device to control loops.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Engineering (Sheffield) > Chemical and Process Engineering (Sheffield)
Depositing User: Dr. Wameath Sh. Abdul-Majeed
Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2012 09:35
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2013 08:50
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/2897

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