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Implicit and explicit personality in work settings: an application of Enneagram theory

Sutton, Anna (2007) Implicit and explicit personality in work settings: an application of Enneagram theory. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.


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Research in the field of personality is fragmented, with few attempts to unite the isolated models into a sensible whole. A type approach to personality can provide a level of analysis more conducive to viewing personality as an integrated whole. This thesis aimed to investigate the theoretical and practical application of the Enneagram personality typology. Study 1 involved a survey of over 400 Enneagram-aware respondents. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of three personality models (Big Five Traits, Schwartz's Values and Implicit Motives), as well as job attitudes and cognitions (Internal Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement, Organisational Commitment, Turnover Intention, Job Self-efficacy and Perceived Stress). Most of the hypothesised relationships between the Enneagram and other models were supported, indicating that the Enneagram types describe coherent patterns of conscious and unconscious personality. The Enneagram predicted job attitudes and cognitions at an equivalent level to the values and motives models, though not as well as the Big Five. The general psychological literature and medical research indicate that greater selfawareness is associated with increased well-being and better coping strategies. However, the role of self-awareness in the workplace and its associated outcomes has not been extensively investigated. In Study 2, 80 volunteers took part in one of two workshops designed to improve their self-awareness: an introduction to the Enneagram or training in self-awareness tools. Participants completed questionnaires before and after the workshop in a switching replications design. The questionnaire measured the Reflection and Rumination aspects of self-awareness as well as job attitudes (Job Satisfaction, Internal Work Motivation, Job-related Well-being) and Coping Behaviours. Participants were also asked to describe the effect of the workshop in their own words to allow for qualitative analysis. Reflection was positively correlated with Well-being and Rumination was negatively correlated with Job Satisfaction. Self-awareness was also associated with increased use of Coping Behaviours. Participants reported a wide range of influences such as improvement in understanding of themselves and others, and increased confidence. The Enneagram typology is a useful tool for researchers, providing an integrative framework for models of explicit and implicit personality. For the occupational psychologist, it can predict job attitudes and provide a structure improving employee self-awareness and the associated benefits.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Leeds University Business School
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.487379
Depositing User: Repository Administrator
Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2012 09:39
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2013 08:50
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/2869

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