White Rose University Consortium logo
University of Leeds logo University of Sheffield logo York University logo

Spark Plasma Sintering as a powder processing route for pre-alloyed Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)17 permanent magnets

Mackie, Alexander J (2017) Spark Plasma Sintering as a powder processing route for pre-alloyed Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)17 permanent magnets. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Available under License Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales.

Download (61Mb) | Preview


The ’rare earth crisis’ that occurred in 2011 ignited research into mitigating and replacing the dependence on these elements in Rare Earth Permanent Magnets (REPM) and their applications. It is the former that this body of work is based upon. A method of increasing the bulk resistivity of a REPM, Sm(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)8.2 (henceforth referred to as Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)17), through the addition of an electrically insulating material, CaF2, to form a rare earth composite permanent magnet is studied. The aim of increasing the bulk resistivity is to minimise the irreversible demagnetisation and performance losses that occur within REPMs due to circulating eddy currents during operation of high frequency applications, such as electric motors and drives. The project utilises an emerging sintering technology platform, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), to rapidly consolidate powders. The processing methodology for Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)17 powders by the SPS technique has therefore been studied with the optimal processing parameters found for producing full dense specimens for study: 1050°C to 1100°C hold temperature, 100°C= min to 200°C= min heating rate, 51MPa hold pressure and 5 minute hold time. Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)17 permanent magnets require a characteristic multi-stage heat treatment to precipitate a cellular nanostructure which enhances the coercivity of the permanent magnets. The optimal heat treatment for the full density SPS processed Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)17 magnets has also been studied, with the following achieving the largest coercivities and energy products: 1. Homogenisation - 1170°C for 2 hours in an argon atmosphere. Cooled slowly in air to room temperature. 2. Ageing - 850°C for 8 hours (for largest coercivity) or 16 hours (for largest (BH)max) in argon atmosphere. 3. Slow cool (1°C=min) from 850°C to 400°C in argon atmosphere. Quench in oil to room temperature. This established processing route was then used to prototype isotropic Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)17 and CaF2 composite magnets and study the effect of the electrically insulating phase on the microstructure, and material and magnetic properties before and after heat treatment.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Engineering (Sheffield) > Materials Science and Engineering (Sheffield)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.755165
Depositing User: Dr. Alexander J Mackie
Date Deposited: 08 Oct 2018 13:38
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2019 20:04
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/21654

You do not need to contact us to get a copy of this thesis. Please use the 'Download' link(s) above to get a copy.
You can contact us about this thesis. If you need to make a general enquiry, please see the Contact us page.

Actions (repository staff only: login required)