White Rose University Consortium logo
University of Leeds logo University of Sheffield logo York University logo

Electronic Transport Properties of Silicon-Germanium Single Photon Avalanche Detectors

Rafferty, Helen Marie (2017) Electronic Transport Properties of Silicon-Germanium Single Photon Avalanche Detectors. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.

[img]
Preview
Text
HM Rafferty thesis.pdf - Final eThesis - complete (pdf)
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales.

Download (4Mb) | Preview

Abstract

Single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) have uses in a number of applications, including time-of-flight ranging, quantum key distribution and low-light sensing. Germanium has an absorption edge at the key communications wavelengths of 1.3-1.55um, and can be grown epitaxially on silicon, however, SiGe SPADs exhibit a number of performance limitations, including low detection efficiencies, high dark counts and afterpulsing. Unintentional doping may affect electronic performance, and band-to-band tunnelling at high operational voltages SPADs may lead to noise currents. Additionally, defects in the Si/Ge interface lead to trap states within the bandgap and contribute to afterpulsing. This work investigates a range of critical performance parameters in SiGe SPADs. The effect of intentional and unintentional doping in SPADs on electric fields, potential profiles and carrier transport in the device is investigated, and optimal dopant profiles for a SiGe SPAD discussed. The dependence of band-to-band tunnelling currents in Ge on bias voltage, Ge thickness and temperature is investigated, and these currents are compared to other sources of noise currents in SPADs. DFT calculations of misfit dislocation structures in Ge are undertaken, to establish electronic bandstructures and optimised geometries for these defects, and identify trap states in the bandgap, which may contribute to afterpulsing and dark counts in SPADs. A number of directions for continuing work are identified, to progress understanding of noise currents and afterpulsing in SPADs.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: silicon germanium SPAD DFT CASTEP Silvaco photon detector dislocations tunnelling electron transport
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Engineering (Leeds) > School of Electronic & Electrical Engineering (Leeds) > Institute of Microwaves and Photonics (Leeds)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.741189
Depositing User: Dr Helen Rafferty
Date Deposited: 22 May 2018 08:58
Last Modified: 25 Jul 2018 09:57
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/20373

You can contact us about this item. If you need to make a general enquiry, please see the Contact us page.

Actions (repository staff only: login required)