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The development of portable chemosensors for atmospheric radicals

Grantham, Andrew James (2017) The development of portable chemosensors for atmospheric radicals. PhD thesis, University of York.

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Abstract

The complex photochemical oxidation cycles involved in the degradative removal of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons from the atmosphere are mediated by a range of radical intermediates (e.g. peroxyl radicals). Thus these radicals are of particular interest in relation to air quality and human health. Speciated measurements of atmospheric radicals pose considerable challenges to analytical chemists. Owing to their low concentrations, high reactivity and short lifetimes, free radical species cannot be easily sampled; therefore direct offline analysis is extremely difficult. Issues such as selectivity, full structure determination, portability and cost (logistics, power, expertise) remain challenging obstacles to atmospheric radical analysis. Within this thesis, the synthesis and development of a series of novel chemosensors is presented. These are organic trapping compounds that can efficiently and selectively react with a range of radical species. The chemosensor is designed with the aim of radical addition to a double bond, resulting in the loss of a stable radical leaving group. The trapped radical structure is maintained in the reaction products, which are sufficiently stable for offline mass spectrometry. This approach allows for accurate determination of the radical structures and is different to traditional spin trapping, with the captured radical now converted to a stable non radical form. The developed chemosensors have been tested and evaluated in laboratory and chamber experiments by application to a range of atmospherically relevant systems (e.g. alkene ozonolysis and reactions of .OH with alkanes), giving key insights into radical selectivity and reaction mechanisms. They have also been applied to measurements of indoor and outdoor air, providing evidence for the function of this system at atmospheric radical concentrations.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Units: The University of York > Chemistry (York)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.745730
Depositing User: Mr Andrew James Grantham
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2018 09:24
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2018 15:24
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/20210

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