White Rose University Consortium logo
University of Leeds logo University of Sheffield logo York University logo

Promoting travel behaviour change of attendees at sport venues - an extended transtheoretical approach

Musgrave, James (2017) Promoting travel behaviour change of attendees at sport venues - an extended transtheoretical approach. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.

[img] Text
Musgrave_J_ITS_PHD_2017.pdf - Final eThesis - complete (pdf)
Restricted until 1 December 2022.

Request a copy


Limited research has been applied to testing intervention effects on travel behaviour of attendees at major sport events. As travel to sport events accounts for a large percentage of carbon emissions there is a need to alter travel behaviour. The underlying premise is that it may be possible to influence intentions and promote change using marketing interventions mapped to the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM). A quasi experimental design was adopted using a case study approach in the execution of the experiment. 4 studies were employed in this research. Study 1 articulated how the TTM was incorporated into the design of the social marketing interventions. Participants (N = 14) helped to identify the most influential marketing interventions. Using an adapted questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), it was concluded that sports fans were not intending to change and their use of the car was supported by peers. In determining the relationship between TPB scores and level of influence of each marketing intervention, the indication was that Subjective Norm (SN) had a mediating impact. In study 2, participants (n =192) were categorised into Stages of Change (SoC) using an adapted TTM questionnaire. The remaining TTM constructs were also assessed. In study 3, a post-intervention questionnaire was distributed to a Control (N=22) and Experimental group (N = 20). The collective results revealed that the interventions did not work. Participants did not recognise travel by car as a problem behaviour despite an awareness of the environmental and health implications. Contextual determinants dominated decisions. It was challenging to determine the theorised relationship between SoC and other TTM constructs as the majority of participants were categorised as Precontemplators or Contemplators. Findings indicated difficulty in aligning Process of Change (PoC) items with the SoC characteristics in this context. Yet the relationships between SoC and decisional balance and self-efficacy suggested alignment to the prescribed theory. In study 4 interviewees evaluated the interventions and gave their reaction. In spite of a sense of engagement, there was no change in travel behaviour. The car was seen as the solution to a problem – getting to the match on time. The findings formed the basis of recommendations which furthered the application of the TTM and its applicability within a specific leisure context.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: Change Behaviour, Transport, Events, Sport, Transtheoretical Model,
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Environment (Leeds) > Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)
Depositing User: Mr J Musgrave
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2017 11:59
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2017 11:59
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/18742

Actions (repository staff only: login required)