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An investigation of dietary patterns in UK adults as a method for developing a brief diet quality.

Roberts, Katharine E (2017) An investigation of dietary patterns in UK adults as a method for developing a brief diet quality. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

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Abstract

Background Dietary patterns analyses reduce detailed dietary intake data to underlying patterns, derived empirically or based on a priori knowledge. Brief tools to assess diet quality are needed for dietary surveillance and research in the UK. This study explores dietary patterns in UK adults as a method for developing such a tool. Methods Data analyses were conducted in National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) data (n=2083). Dietary patterns were derived through Principal Component Analysis. Associations with socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, nutrient intake and biomarkers were explored. A nutrient-based diet quality score (NDQS) was developed based on a priori knowledge and validated against nutrient biomarkers. NDNS respondents were scored against the NDQS. Backwards elimination regression identified variables independently predictive of the NDQS. Confirmatory analysis compared the indicator variables generated from empirically and theoretically driven methods as predictors of the NDQS. Regressions identified the most parsimonious model predictive of the NDQS. Results Four dietary patterns, explaining13.4% of the sample variance, were labelled according to the foods characterising them: ‘fruit, vegetables and oily fish’ (FVOF), ‘snacks, fast food and fizzy drinks’ (SFFFD), ‘sugary foods and dairy (SFD)’ and ‘meat, potatoes and beer (MPB)’. FVOF was positively associated with being female, non-white, older, a non-smoker and a higher NDQS score. SFFFD was the inverse. The NDQS was positively associated with biomarkers of vitamins C, D, B6, total carotenoids and age and negatively with urinary sodium, being white and smoking. Both methods generated models predictive of diet quality (adjusted R2 = 0.29-0.31, 0.33 respectively). A tool with 5 items, fruit, vegetables, wholemeal bread, sugary drinks and coated chicken/turkey, was predictive of diet quality (adjusted R2 = 0.26). Conclusion Diet quality is an important measure for informing public health policy. This study found dietary patterns analyses to be useful methods for developing a brief, diet quality assessment tool.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: Dietary patterns, Dietary patterns analysis, Diet Quality Score, Diet quality, Dietary assessment, Brief dietary assessment tools, National Diet and Nutrition Survey.
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health (Sheffield) > School of Health and Related Research (Sheffield)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.722778
Depositing User: Dr Katharine E Roberts
Date Deposited: 18 Sep 2017 08:38
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2019 20:02
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/18091

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