White Rose University Consortium logo
University of Leeds logo University of Sheffield logo York University logo

Developing Real Driving CO2 Emission Factors for Hybrid Cars Through on Road Testing and Microscale Modelling

Riley, Richard James Acklom (2016) Developing Real Driving CO2 Emission Factors for Hybrid Cars Through on Road Testing and Microscale Modelling. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.

Text (Richard Riley PhD Thesis)
PhD Thesis Richard Riley 2017.pdf - Final eThesis - complete (pdf)
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales.

Download (14Mb) | Preview


Vehicle type approval CO2 emission figures form the basis for many countries’ national policy to reduce transport's contribution to anthropogenic climate change. However, it has become increasingly apparent that the vehicle type approval testing procedure used in Europe is not fit for purpose. There is, therefore, a need for representative real world emission factors that can be used to inform consumers, aid policy makers and provide an accurate benchmark from which type approval figures can be compared. In this work, two methods are explored to assess their feasibility to provide robust CO2 emission figures. The first is on-road vehicle activity tracking, using data collected from the vehicle controller area network. This method was chosen as it has the potential to provide large quantities of cheap, reliable data and has been demonstrated by recording over 40 parameters during testing of a third-generation Toyota Prius. This data has been used to analyse the vehicle powertrain control and provide a clear understanding of the control mechanisms that balance the engine and electrical power systems, present a comparison of the emissions of conventional and hybrid taxis giving local policy makers the underlying evidence required to introduce strong policies to reduce urban emissions from taxis and build a microscale emission model for accurate and detailed emission forecasts. The second method is microscale vehicle modelling, defined as very short time step models (1 second or less) that capture vehicle and location specific details within the model. The model requires vehicle speed and road gradient data as input and outputs second-by-second cumulative and total fuel consumed and CO2 emissions. The model has been validated against independent data (chassis dynamometer data collected by Argonne National Laboratory) and is now a powerful tool to help assess the effects of local policies (geofences, changes in the speed limit, incentives for hybrid vehicle uptake) or schemes (eco-driving) on the CO2 emissions from hybrid vehicles. This work has further developed these two methods in two ways. Firstly, by demonstrating the accuracy of controller area network data collected in vehicle activity tracking. Secondly, by demonstrating the precision of emission models built using real-world data, despite the data noise caused by real world conditions. In conclusion, these methods are well suited to providing representative real world CO2 emission factors, especially if the methods are combined. This is because vehicle activity tracking can provide the large amount of data needed for vehicle modelling and a vehicle model can provide situation specific emission factors, which, in contrary to many current emissions factors, are not only dependent on vehicle average speeds.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: CO2 Emissions, Hybrid vehicles, Real-world testing, Microscale emission modelling, Taxi emissions
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Engineering (Leeds) > School of Chemical and Process Engineering (Leeds)
The University of Leeds > Faculty of Environment (Leeds) > Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.714267
Depositing User: Mr Richard James Acklom Riley
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2017 15:03
Last Modified: 25 Jul 2018 09:55
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/17410

You do not need to contact us to get a copy of this thesis. Please use the 'Download' link(s) above to get a copy.
You can contact us about this thesis. If you need to make a general enquiry, please see the Contact us page.

Actions (repository staff only: login required)