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3D Morphable Models: Data Pre-Processing, Statistical Analysis and Fitting

Patel, Ankur (2011) 3D Morphable Models: Data Pre-Processing, Statistical Analysis and Fitting. PhD thesis, University of York.

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Abstract

This thesis presents research aimed at using a 3D linear statistical model (known as a 3D morphable model) of an object class (which could be faces, bodies, cars, etc) for robust shape recovery. Our aim is to use this recovered information for the purposes of potentially useful applications like recognition and synthesis. With a 3D morphable model as its central theme, this thesis includes: a framework for the groupwise processing of a set of meshes in dense correspondence; a new method for model construction; a new interpretation of the statistical constraints afforded by the model and addressing of some key limitations associated with using such models in real world applications. In Chapter 1 we introduce 3D morphable models, touch on the current state-of-the-art and emphasise why these models are an interesting and important research tool in the computer vision and graphics community. We then talk about the limitations of using such models and use these limitations as a motivation for some of the contributions made in this thesis. Chapter 2 presents an end-to-end system for obtaining a single (possibly symmetric) low resolution mesh topology and texture parameterisation which are optimal with respect to a set of high resolution input meshes in dense correspondence. These methods result in data which can be used to build 3D morphable models (at any resolution). In Chapter 3 we show how the tools of thin-plate spline warping and Procrustes analysis can be used to construct a morphable model as a shape space. We observe that the distribution of parameter vector lengths follows a chi-square distribution and discuss how the parameters of this distribution can be used as a regularisation constraint on the length of parameter vectors. In Chapter 4 we take the idea introduced in Chapter 3 further by enforcing a hard constraint which restricts faces to points on a hyperspherical manifold within the parameter space of a linear statistical model. We introduce tools from differential geometry (log and exponential maps for a hyperspherical manifold) which are necessary for developing our methodology and provide empirical validation to justify our choice of manifold. Finally, we show how to use these tools to perform model fitting, warping and averaging operations on the surface of this manifold. Chapter 5 presents a method to simplify a 3D morphable model without requiring knowledge of the training meshes used to build the model. This extends the simplification ideas in Chapter 2 into a statistical setting. The proposed method is based on iterative edge collapse and we show that the expected value of the Quadric Error Metric can be computed in closed form for a linear deformable model. The simplified models can used to achieve efficient multiscale fitting and super-resolution. In Chapter 6 we consider the problem of model dominance and show how shading constraints can be used to refine morphable model shape estimates, offering the possibility of exceeding the maximum possible accuracy of the model. We present an optimisation scheme based on surface normal error as opposed to image error. This ensures the fullest possible use of the information conveyed by the shading in an image. In addition, our framework allows non-model based estimation of per-vertex bump and albedo maps. This means the recovered model is capable of describing shape and reflectance phenomena not present in the training set. We explore the use of the recovered shape and reflectance information for face recognition and synthesis. Finally, in Chapter 7 we provide concluding remarks and discuss directions for future research.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Units: The University of York > Computer Science (York)
Depositing User: Mr Ankur Patel
Date Deposited: 26 Aug 2011 10:27
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2013 08:46
URI: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/1576

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