Number of items at this level: **159**.

## 2016

Al-Saffar, Manar
(2016)
*The Influence of Dimensional and Dimensionless Parameters on the Dynamics of the Horseshoe Vortex Upstream of a Circular Cylinder.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Alskeif, Ali
(2016)
*Development of a Mechanically Correct Fire Resistance Design Process for Composite Floor systems in Buildings.*
MPhil thesis, University of Sheffield.

Gill, Richard T
(2016)
*Electrokinetic-enhanced migration of solutes for improved bioremediation in heterogeneous granular porous media.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Hedbavna, Petra
(2016)
*Bioelectrochemically-enhanced
Remediation of Contaminated
Groundwater.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Ismail, Kamaran Sulaiman
(2016)
*Shear Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Louks , Richard
(2016)
*Developing the Theory of Critical Distances for practical integrity assessment of real-life structural components.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

NGUYEN, HIEN V.
(2016)
*Debonding failure of RC beams retrofitted with Near Surface Mounted FRP Reinforcement.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Williams, Kieran
(2016)
*Experimental Study of Multiple Outlets in a Siphonic Roof Drainage System.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

YE, JUN
(2016)
*More efficient cold-formed steel elements and bolted connections.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

dong, gang
(2016)
*Development of a General-Purpose Component-based Connection Element for Structural Fire Analysis.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

van Doorn, Anna
(2016)
*Testing the Geometric Framework on the Root Foraging Behaviour of Poa annua.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2015

Alkandari, Jasem
(2015)
*Laboratory investigation on bromoform formation in potable water of Kuwait.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Furnass, William R
(2015)
*Modelling both the continual accumulation and erosion of
discolouration material in drinking water distribution systems.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Haleem, Dilshad
(2015)
*Wavelet-based numerical methods adaptive modelling of shallow water flows.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

He, Linwei
(2015)
*Rationalization of trusses and yield-line patterns identified using layout optimization.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Nguyen, Duc
(2015)
*Discrete and continuum modelling of micro-lattices in dynamics.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Peach, Benjamin
(2015)
*Laser scabbling of cementitious materials.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Pytlos, Michal
(2015)
*New tools for modelling soil-filled masonry arch bridges.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Rubinato, Matteo
(2015)
*Physical Scale Modelling of Urban Flood Systems.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Sabtu, Nuridah
(2015)
*Hydraulic interaction between the above and below ground drainage systems via gully inlets.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Shwan, Bestun
(2015)
*Experimental and Numerical Study of the Shear Strength of Unsaturated Sand.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Stein, Robert
(2015)
*Detecting Load Induced Thermal Damage in Concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Taylor, Amy J.
(2015)
*The Expansion of Pyritic Mudrocks: A consideration and application of physical tests for better understanding of the Irish pyrite problem.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Tuxworth, Alexander J
(2015)
*Recent stress history effects in clays and
associated improvements to the BRICK
model.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Velandia Manchego, Diego F
(2015)
*Activated hybrid cementitious system using Portland cement and high volume Colombian fly ash with sodium sulfate.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Yang, Fang
(2015)
*Deformation Behaviour of Beams Reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer Bars under Bending and Shear.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2014

ABDALKADER, ASHRAF
(2014)
*Thaumasite Sulfate Attack in Cement Mortars Exposed to Sulfate and Chloride and Implications to Rebar Corrosion.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

ABUBAKER, FARHAT
(2014)
*Controls on thaumasite in buried concrete:effect of clay composition and cement type.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Abualgasem, Jumma
(2014)
*The effect of wetting and drying cycles and carbonation on thaumasite formation.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Boardman, Daniel G
(2014)
*Ultrasound-mediated Gene Transfer to Enhance Bioremediation of Contaminated Water.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Broadhead, Adam T
(2014)
*Stream and spring capture in combined sewer systems.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Bruce-Konuah, Adorkor
(2014)
*Occupant window opening behaviour: the relative importance of temperature and carbon dioxide in university office buildings.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Castleton, Holly
(2014)
*Assessment of Design Stage Energy Prediction Models for Low Carbon Office Buildings.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Chandler, David Mark
(2014)
*The impact of sewer misconnection effluents on diatom communities.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Hampson, William J.
(2014)
*Locating Sources of Pressure Transients in Water Distribution Systems.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Hetherington, Jack
(2014)
*The Bipenalty Method for Explicit Structural Dynamics.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Kelly, Peter
(2014)
*Soil Structure Interaction and Group Mechanics of Vibrated Stone Column Foundations.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Noormohammadi, Nima
(2014)
*HYBRID CONTROL OF HUMAN-INDUCED VIBRATION.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

RAHBARI, RAHI
(2014)
*Robustness of Steel Connections Loaded at High Rates.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Reay, Jonathan
(2014)
*An Investigation into the Dynamic Response of Cardboard Honeycombs.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Rigby, Samuel E.
(2014)
*Blast Wave Clearing Effects on Finite-Sized Targets Subjected to Explosive Loads.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Shahabpoor, Erfan
(2014)
*Dynamic Interaction of Walking Humans with Pedestrian Structures in Vertical Direction
Experimentally Based Probabilistic Modelling.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Sonnenwald, Frederick C
(2014)
*Identifying the residence time distributions of urban drainage structures from solute transport data using maximum entropy deconvolution.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Tian, Yuan
(2014)
*The Tensile Membrane Action of Non-orthogonal Composite Slabs at Elevated Temperatures.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Vesuviano, Gianni Michael
(2014)
*A Two-Stage Runoff Detention Model for a Green Roof.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Younis, Khaleel Hassan
(2014)
*RESTRAINED SHRINKAGE BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE WITH RECYCLED MATERIALS.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Zhu, Di
(2014)
*In the process of Raman activated cell sorting for single cell analysis.*
MPhil thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2013

Babiker, A F A
(2013)
*Limit Analysis Using A Non-Associative Flow Rule.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Caudana Quintana, Humberto
(2013)
*Semiactive Friction Connections for Seismic Control of Multi-Storey Buildings.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Densley Tingley, Danielle
(2013)
*Design for Deconstruction: an appraisal.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Eljajeh, Yasser
(2013)
*Semi-Active Control of Post-tensioned Steel Frames.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Fish, Katherine
(2013)
*The Impact of Hydraulic Regime upon Biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Hudson, Emma J
(2013)
*Incorporating Active Control of Human-Induced Vibrations in Floors into Buildings.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Johnson, N
(2013)
*The Acoustics of Micro Hydropower: Reverse Archimedean Screw and the Implications in Urban River Corridors.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Mulyani, Rini
(2013)
*EXTENDED FRAMEWORK FOR EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI RISK ASSESSMENT: PADANG CITY A CASE STUDY.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Park, Peter
(2013)
*Application of Design Synthesis Technology in Architectural Practice.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

de Battista, Nicholas
(2013)
*Wireless Technology and Data Analytics for Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2012

Bennett, Paul
(2012)
*Evaluation of the Solute Transport Characteristics of Surcharged Manholes using a RANS Solution.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Hawksbee, Samuel John
(2012)
*3D ultimate limit state analysis using discontinuity layout optimization.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Helal, Yasser
(2012)
*Seismic strengthening of deficient exterior RC beam-column sub-assemblages using post-tensioned metal strips.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Jafarifar, Naeimeh
(2012)
*Shrinkage Behaviour of Steel-Fibre-Reinforced-Concrete Pavements.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Langford, Harry
(2012)
*The microstructure, biogeochemistry and aggregation of Arctic cryoconite granules.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Li, Mengqiu
(2012)
*Developing Raman sorting and imaging techniques to characterise and differentiate unculturable microbial single cells.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Sharpe, R
(2012)
*Laboratory investigations into processes causing discoloured potable water.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Westgate, Robert
(2012)
*Environmental Effects on a Suspension Bridge's Performance.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2011

Graeff, Angela Gaio
(2011)
*Long-term performance of recycled steel fibre reinforced concrete for pavement applications.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

King, Charles MacIan
(2011)
*Column design for axial compression and end rotation.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Newman, Richard Dunstan Alexander
(2011)
*A conceptual framework for a nonstructural approach to reduce flood impact in urban catchments.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2010

Barns, Gareth L
(2010)
*On Single Well Forced Gradient Tracer Tests:
Implications of Aquifer Physical Heterogeneity and Tracer Behaviour.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Kasmin, Hartini
(2010)
*Hydrological performance of green roofs.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Le, Canh
(2010)
*NOVEL NUMERICAL PROCEDURES FOR LIMIT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES:
MESH-FREE METHODS AND MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2009

Bondar, Dali
(2009)
*Alkali activation of Iranian natural pozzolans for producing geopolymer cement and concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Clarke, Samuel David
(2009)
*Enhancement of the Brick constitutive model to incorporate viscous soil behaviour.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Nguyen, Dong
(2009)
*Application of computational limit analysis to soil-structure interaction in masonry arch bridges.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2008

Effendi, Rustam
(2008)
*Modelling of the settlement interaction of neighbouring buildings on soft ground.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

UTHMAN, Z
(2008)
*CONFIGURATIONAL FORCES IN STRUCTURAL AND CONTINUUM OPTIMISATION.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2007

Callaway, Phillip Arthur
(2007)
*Soil-structure interaction in masonry arch bridges.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Cook, Dominic
(2007)
*Field investigation of discolouration material accumulation rates in live drinking Water distribution systems.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Salman, Kehlan
(2007)
*A new elasto-plasticity constitutive model for concrete under multiaxial compression based on experimental observations.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Sarraj, Marwan
(2007)
*The behaviour of steel fin plate connections in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Xu, Hao
(2007)
*Acid tar lagoons : assessment and environmental interaction.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2006

Al-Sunna, Raed Akram Saliba
(2006)
*Deflection behaviour of FRP reinforced concrete flexural members.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Beer, Leon Robert
(2006)
*Parametric analysis of groundshock loading on steel plates and reinforced concrete slabs.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Sooriyaarachchi, Harsha
(2006)
*Tension stiffening effect in GFRP reinforced concrete elements.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Zivanovic, Stana
(2006)
*Probability-based estimation of vibration for pedestrian structures due to walking.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2005

Ahmed, Husham
(2005)
*Limit analysis of structures : novel computational techniques.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Marion, Stephanie
(2005)
*Environmental costs and environmental benefits analysis of packaging waste recovery and recycling targets.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2004

Brown, Michael John
(2004)
*The rapid load testing of piles in fine grained soils.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Dachtar, John
(2004)
*Calcium sulfoaluminate cement as binder for structural concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Fair, Peter
(2004)
*The geotechnical behaviour of ballast materials for railway track maintenance.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Marden Torres, Sandro
(2004)
*The influence of chloride on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack in mortars containing calcium carbonate.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Saiyudthong, Chanwit
(2004)
*Effect of changes in pipe direction across surcharged manholes on dispersion and head loss.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Tlemat, Houssam
(2004)
*Steel fibres from waste tyres to concrete : testing, modelling and design.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2003

Al-Otaibi, Saud
(2003)
*Performance of alkali-activated slag concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Sachse, Regina
(2003)
*The influences of human occupants on the dynamic properties of slender structures.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Swan, Andrew D
(2003)
*A decision - support system for the design of retrofit sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS).*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2002

Bennett, Terry
(2002)
*Finite element-based non-linear dynamic soil-structure interaction.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Cai, Jun
(2002)
*Developments in modelling of composite building structures in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Kythreoti, Stella
(2002)
*Earthquake risk assessment and management : case study; Cyprus.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Saadi, Yusron
(2002)
*The influence of different time varying antecedent flows on the stability of mixed grain size deposits.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Spyrou, Spyros
(2002)
*Development of a component based model of steel beam-to-column joints at elevated temperatures.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2001

Sangtian, Note
(2001)
*Miniature piezocene tests and effects of smear due to vertical penetration in layered soils.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Wong, Shao Young
(2001)
*The structural response of industrial portal frame structures in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 2000

Boxall, Joseph B.
(2000)
*Dispersion of solutes in sinuous open channel flows.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Dennis, Peter
(2000)
*Longitudinal dispersion due to surcharged manholes.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Eccles, Stephen David
(2000)
*Quantitative evaluation of contract strategies for construction.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1999

Abd-Rahman, Ahmad Baharuddin
(1999)
*Analytical studies of the behaviour of semi-rigid non-sway frames with tubular columns.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Al-Jabri, Khalifa Saif
(1999)
*The behaviour of steel and composite beam-to-column connections in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Jaafar, Mohd Saleh
(1999)
*Time-dependent analysis of continuous precast prestressed concrete beams.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Key, Andrew J
(1999)
*Behaviour of two layer railway track ballast under cyclic and monotonic loading.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Pavic, Aleksandar
(1999)
*Vibration serviceability of long-span cast in-situ concrete floors.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Rose, Paul Stuart
(1999)
*Simulation of steel/concrete composite structures in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Shepherd, Paul
(1999)
*The performance in fire of restrained columns in steel-framed construction.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1998

Achillides, Zenon
(1998)
*Bond behaviour of FRP bars in concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1997

Leston-Jones, Lee Christopher
(1997)
*The influence of semi-rigid connections on the performance of steel framed structures in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Pimentel, Roberto Leal
(1997)
*Vibrational performance of pedestrian bridges due to human-induced loads.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1996

Haas, Martin
(1996)
*Investigations on shear including the development of a material model for the FE analysis of cracked RC structures.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Pierpoint, Nicholas David
(1996)
*The prediction and back analysis of excavation behaviour in Oxford Clay.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Stovin, Virginia Ruth
(1996)
*The prediction of sediment deposition in storage chambers based on laboratory observations and numerical simulation.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1995

Bailey, Colin Gareth
(1995)
*Simulation of the structural behaviour of steel-framed buildings in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Gupta, Kapil
(1995)
*A methodology to predict the pollutant loads in combined sewer flow.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Salman, Talib H
(1995)
*Triaxial behaviour of partially saturated granular soils at low stress levels.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1994

Duranovic, N
(1994)
*Impulsive loading on reinforced concrete slabs.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Najjar, Samer Rida
(1994)
*Three-dimensional analysis of steel frames and subframes in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Ng, Paul Chi Fai
(1994)
*Behaviour of buried pipelines subjected to external loading.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Zakaria, Ideris
(1994)
*Yielding of unsaturated soil.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1993

Lau, Sui Ming
(1993)
*The response of non-sway steel framed structures with semi-rigid connections.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1992

Belk, David Graham
(1992)
*Thermal mapping for a highway gritting network.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Ahmed, Ishtiaque
(1992)
*Semi-rigid action in steel frames.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Russell, Darren
(1992)
*Finite element analysis of embankments on soft ground incorporating reinforcement and drains.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1991

Abu, Sha'ari
(1991)
*Analysis of steel frame structures in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1990

Ayadat, Tahar
(1990)
*Collapse of stone column foundations due to inundation.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Saab, Hassan A
(1990)
*Non-linear finite element analysis of steel frames in fire conditions.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Saneinejad, Abolghasem
(1990)
*Non-linear analysis of infilled frames.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1989

Chikho, Abdul Hakim
(1989)
*Frame behaviour with semi-rigid connections.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Lai, Yuk Fai Willy
(1989)
*Buckling strength of welded and non-welded aluminium members.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1988

Olawale, Aderemi Olayiwola
(1988)
*Collapse behaviour of steel columns in fire.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Wang, Yong C
(1988)
*Ultimate strength analysis of three dimensional structures with flexible restraints.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1987

Davison, John Buick
(1987)
*Strength of beam-columns in flexibly connected steel frames.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Rifai, Abdussalam Mahmud
(1987)
*Behaviour of columns in sub-frames with semi-rigid joints.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1986

Chan, Andrew Kay Ching
(1986)
*Impact behaviour of model prestressed concrete beams.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1984

Samai, Mohammed-Laid
(1984)
*Behaviour of reinforced concrete frames with lightweight blockwork infill panels.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1983

Charif, Abdelhamid
(1983)
*Structural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by epoxy bonded steel plates.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1982

Lambert, Graham
(1982)
*Properties and behaviour of structural lightweight (Lytag-sand) concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Alwash, Abdul Salam A
(1982)
*Flexural behaviour of ferrocement.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Kerdal, Djamel El-Ddine
(1982)
*Lateral-torsional buckling strength of castellated beams.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Natsinas, Theodoros
(1982)
*A computer simulation study of the effects of flaring and turning movements on roundabout entry performance.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Okpala, Daniel Chiedu
(1982)
*Pore structure and oil flow through hardened cement paste, mortar and concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1981

Al-Jumaily, Fouad Ahmed
(1981)
*Further studies on the repeated loading of piles in sand.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Chiam, Tou Ping
(1981)
*Shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams with and without steel fibres.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Johnson, Martyn Robert
(1981)
*Projectile penetration into rock/elastomer composites.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Mahmoud, Nabil S.
(1981)
*Inelastic stability of plate structures using the finite strip method.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Theodorakopoulos, Dimitrios D.
(1981)
*Punching shear strength of steel fibre reinforced lightweight concrete slabs.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1980

Bloxham, John W
(1980)
*Investigation of the flexural properties of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by externally bonded steel plates.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Jones, Stephen Winford
(1980)
*Semi rigid connections and their influence on steel column behaviour.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1979

Ali, Subhi Aziz
(1979)
*Creep properties of evaporite rocks with particular reference to gypsum.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1978

Hammad, Youssef M. H.
(1978)
*Influence of the flange on the ultimate shear capacity of reinforced concrete T-beams.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Oyeka, Chike Christian
(1978)
*Pore structure and crude oil permeability of hardened cement paste and concrete.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

## 1976

Elizzi, Mohammed Ayoub Sabry
(1976)
*The time dependent behaviour of some evaporite rocks.*
PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

This list was generated on **Sat Dec 3 07:28:00 2016 GMT**.